risk and uncertainty notes

2 December 2020

information asymmetries. The alternative is not to drill at all, in which case your profit is zero. A university is trying to decide whether or not to advertise a new post-graduate degree programme. Some common symbols can be used: a square is used to represent a decision point (i.e. predict the possibility of a future outcome. This forecast may turn out to becorrect or incorrect. The Value of Perfect and Imperfect Information. rolling a dice, roulette wheel Statistical probability: Observed frequencies used to predict outcomes. The random numbers generated give 5 possibleoutcomes in our example: A business is choosing between two projects, project A and projectB. It is concerned with such factors as gross national product (GNP), investment, expenditure, population, employment, productivity and trade. If the insurance company knew who smokes and Uncertainty is a lack of complete certainty. The essence of that, though, is along the way, in addition to this uncertainty, you have this layer of risk with everything you're doing. There are three main types of information that can be collected by desk research: Motivational research – the objective is to understand factors that influence why consumers do or do not buy particular products. The information is collected from secondary sources. Sensitivity analysis takes each uncertain factor in turn, andcalculates the change that would be necessary in that factor before theoriginal decision is reversed. odds of being killed on a single airline flight are 1/29 million Estimated probability (uncertainty) – Most common, demands judgment component of the risk management process is risk assessment, which involves the determination of University: Tribhuvan University (TU) Course: Masters of Business Studies (MBS) Semester / Year: 1. Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. Decision-making under Certainty: . After reading this article you will learn about Decision-Making under Certainty, Risk and Uncertainty. Returns from a new restaurant venture depend on whether acompetitor decides to open up in the same area. Step 1: Draw the tree from left to right. Imperfect information The forecast is usually correct, but can be incorrect. In the context of risk, we often can examine t… risk and uncertainty by syed muhammad ijaz, fca dated august 03, 2007 . The certainty equivalent method converts expected risky profit streams to their certain sum equivalents to eliminate value differences that result from different risk levels. Simulation is a modelling technique that shows the effect of more than one variable changing at the same time. However, if the business would prefer to minimise its exposure torisk, it would take on project A. risk and uncertainty by syed muhammad ijaz, fca dated august 03, 2007 ... no notes for slide. The objective of risk assessment is to conduct an assessment to bode negative effects so that adverse outcome can be minimized. Uncertainty ADVERTISEMENTS: 2. coverage. If a firm can obtain a 100% accurateprediction they will always be able to undertake the most beneficialcourse of action for that prediction. Typically, it involves posing 'what-if'questions. a person takes more risks because someone else bears the cost of those risks. Draw a decision tree to represent your problem. Examination. Should you drill? It can often eliminate the need for extensive field work. Market intelligence is information about a company's present or possible future markets. 2.1 Concept of risk and uncertainty a) Risk In the simple manner risk is the probability of deciding the method or the opportunities for the better output. Companies tend to record their sales information for accountancy purposes or for the management of the sales force. What is the difference between risk and uncertainty and how our decision-making approach should differ in each scenario. Risk: there are a number of possible outcomes and the probability of each outcome is known. the insurance company that you smoke and drink a lot? Itsstaff has asked you to help them decide how many salads it should supplyfor each day of the forthcoming year. Uncertainty is a lack of complete certainty. For example, if the demand is 40 salads, we will make a maximumprofit of $80 if they all sell. Lecture Notes: General Insurance Lecture 8: Risk and uncertainty in pricing and reinsurance By Omari C.O 1 Risk and uncertainty in pricing and reinsurance 1.1 Introduction Insurance contracts transfer elements of risk and uncertainty from customers to insurers. F.H., 1921, Risk, Uncertainty and Profit, New York Hart, Schaffner and Marx. Difference between Risk and Uncertainty. From the perspective of an investment project, risk There is only a 10%chance that you will strike oil if you drill, but the profit is$200,000. For example, the same oil company may dig for oil in a previouslyunexplored area. Label the tree and relevant cash inflows/outflows and probabilities associated with outcomes : (a)   Calculate an Expected Value at each outcome point. An entity which provides insurance is There is a 60% chance that economic conditions will be poor. Triad testing – where people are asked which out of a given three items they prefer. A manager is considering a make v buy decision based on the following estimates: You are required to assess the sensitivity of the decision to the external purchase price. where a choice between different courses of action must be taken. Share Related Material. Risk 3. This includes: The small sample size means that results may not be representative. Content: Risk Vs Uncertainty company. Share Related Material. Therefore, the contributionper salad is $2. Hi John, the concept has been well explained in the lecture, the assumption is the spread is a normal distribution and hence the graph is symmetrical and hence there is a 50% chance of the return being higher or lower than the average return. loss. This normally happens when the seller of a good or service has greater knowledge The financial outcomes and probabilities are shown separately, andthe decision tree is ‘rolled back' by calculating expected values andmakingdecisions. The maximin rule involves selecting the alternative that maximisesthe minimum pay-off achievable. In addition to the research techniques discussed, the following methods can be used to address risk or uncertainty. Following up from the pay-off table example, Geoffrey Ramsbottom's table looks as follows : How many salads should we decide to supply if the minimax regret rule is applied? Knight argues that the second individual is exposed to risk but that the first suffers from ignorance. Unfortunately the sample becomes self-selecting and so may be biased. Chapter 4 – Pricing Theory and Practices. Managing risk is easier because you can identify risks and develop a response plan. of a risk-free investment. risk and uncertainty. When the level of risk and the attitudes toward risk taking are known, the effects of uncertainty can be directly reflected in the basic valuation model of the firm. Before you drill, you may consult ageologist who can assess the promise of the piece of land. The film whichhas been code named CA45 is a thriller based on a novel by a wellrespected author. The more variable these outcomes are the greater the risk. In uncertainty, you completely lack the background ⇒ Risk is qualified as an asymmetric phenomenon in the sense that it is related to loss only. In ISO 9000:2015, within the definition of risk a note expands on the term uncertainty. Risk: there are a number of possible outcomes and the probability of each outcome is known. Profits are therefore maximised at 50 salads and amount to $90. Uncertainty is a lack of complete certainty. One could say the penguin's uncertainty about the outcome of his next step is the risk, but here you need both the event of him taking a step, and uncertainty in the event outcome to make up the risk. Step 1: Draw the tree from left to right, showing appropriate decisions and events / outcomes. Thus it is clear then that though both ‘risk and uncertainty’ talk about future losses or hazards, while risk can be quantified and measured; there is no known way of ascertaining uncertainty. Copyright © 2020 StudeerSnel B.V., Keizersgracht 424, 1016 GC Amsterdam, KVK: 56829787, BTW: NL852321363B01, Coursebook Economics of Information 2019 20. In short, risk may be defined as the degree of uncertainty about an income. EV(B) = (0.65% x $200,000) - $10,000 drilling costs = -$8,700. Market research findings, for example, are likely to bereasonably accurate - but they can still be wrong. If there is oil, the probability that she will say there aregood prospects is 95%. Risk and Uncertainty. Non-Insurable Risk 4. Insurance: Is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent Created at 5/24/2012 4:39 PM  by System Account, (GMT) Greenwich Mean Time : Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Last modified at 5/25/2012 12:54 PM  by System Account. If there is no oil, the probability that she willsay prospects are poor is 85%. If the geologist charges $7,000, wouldyou use her services? Risk implies a chance for some unfavourable outcome to occur. risk and uncertainty lecture 2 1. risk and uncertainty by syed muhammad ijaz, fca dated august 03, 2007 2. Information: Managers can acquire or buy additional information, when introducing a new product. On-line focus groups are becoming more popular and help to address this issue. Quota sampling– where samples are designed to be representative with respect to pre-selected criteria. Group interviewing – where between six and ten people are asked to consider the relevant subject (object) under trained supervision. The certainty equivalent method converts expected risky profit streams to their certain sum equivalents to eliminate value differences that result from different risk levels. Jeder einzelne von unserer Redaktion begrüßt Sie als Kunde zum großen Vergleich. The expected revenues from the film have been estimated as follows:there is a 30% chance it may generate total sales of $254,000; 50%chance sales may reach $318,000 and 20% chance they may reach $382,000. Answer - University advertising decision tree. All probabilities should add up to '1'. Step2: Evaluate the tree from right to left carrying out these two actions: (a) Calculate an EV at each outcome point. decision. describe generally available research techniques to reduce uncertainty, e.g. This Product includes content from the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) and the International Ethics Standards Board for. small loss in the form of a payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer’s promise to – ex. The maximum possible change is often expressed as a percentage.This formula only works for total cash flows. Conversely, many companies, especially blue-chips and public services, can often be seen to produce reams of data for no apparent reason, or because 'we always have done'. Rarely is the information collected in a form in which it can readily be used by marketing management. It’s a risk management technique used to reduce any substantial losses or gains suffered We use the terms risk and uncertainty in a single breath, but have you ever wondered about their difference. This approach would be appropriate for a pessimist who seeks to achieve the best results if the worst happens. managing uncertainty is very difficult as previous information is not available, too many parameters This is because a risk neutral investor neither seeks risk or avoids it; he is happy to accept an average outcome. Comparing contribution figures, the product should be bought in and re-badged: Step 2: Calculate the sensitivity (to the external purchase price). It may not be exactly what the researcher wants and may not be totally up to date or accurate. Information will be presented to management in a form which facilitates subjective judgement to decide the likelihood of the various possible outcomes considered. The number of students starting the programme is dependent on economic conditions: If the programme is advertised and economic conditions are poor,there is a 65% chance that the advertising will stimulate further demandand student numbers will increase to 50. For example, if the target population is 55% women and 45% men, then a sample of 200 people could be structured so 110 women and 90 men are asked, rather than simply asking 200 people and leaving it up to chance whether or not the gender mix is typical. For example, press articles, published accounts, census information. However, it is quicker and cheaper than field research. A company is choosing which of three new products to make (A, B orC) and has calculated likely pay-offs under three possible scenarios (I,II or III), giving the following pay-off table. With this new system MrRamsbottom will know for certain the daily demand 24 hours in advance.He can adjust production levels on a daily basis. Some, such as Southwest Airlines, have made extensive use of financial instruments to hedge fuel risks, whereas others leave positions open. Geoffrey Ramsbottom runs a kitchen that provides food for variouscanteens throughout a large organisation. A great deal of information is freely available in this area from sources such as government ministries, the nationalised industries, universities and organisations such as the OECD. The highest minimum payoff arises from supplying 40 salads. Economic intelligence can be defined as information relating to the economic environment within which a company operates. If the three are brands of a given type of product (or three similar types), replies may show a great deal about which features of a product most influence the buying decision. Perfect information The forecast of the future outcome isalways a correct prediction. Individuals may feel under pressure to agree with other members or to give a 'right' answer. Why pandemics are highly uncertain and should be treated as such. A decision tree is a diagrammatic representation of amulti-decision problem, where all possible courses of action arerepresented, and every possible outcome of each course of action isshown. In summary, risk refers to the potential variability of outcomes from a  You can assign a probability to risks events, while with uncertainty you can’t. In summary, risk refers to the potential variability of outcomes from a decision. about locking his car, because the consequences of automobile theft are borne by the insurance (a)You have the mineral rights to a piece ofland that you believe may have oil underground. For indifference, the contribution from outsourcing needs to fallto $5 per unit. ⇒ Risk is qualified as an asymmetric phenomenon in the sense that it is related to loss only. She can tellyou whether the prospects are good or poor, but she is not a perfectpredictor. Simulation would be particularly useful on an operational level foranalysing the possible implications of a single event, such as a majorhorse race or football match: Simulation could also be used for wider strategic analysis such asfor assessing the possibility and implications of stricter anti-gamblinglegislation. Following up from the pay-off table example, Geoffrey Ramsbottom's table looks as follows: The manager who employs the maximax criterion is assuming thatwhatever action is taken, the best will happen; he/she is a risk-taker.How many salads will he decide to supply? 2. Word association testing – on being given a word by the interviewer, the first word that comes into the mind of the person being tested is noted. In case of risk all possible future events or consequences of an action or decision are known. Types of Probability a priori probability: known outcomes. tomorrow then there is uncertainty but no risk as there is no monetary loss. The probabilities used are usually very subjective. An expected value is a weighted average of all possible outcomes.It calculates the average return that will be made if a decision isrepeated again and again. It will not tell the business which is thebetter project. It uses simulation to generate a distribution of profits for eachproject. If we employ the geologist, the probabilities of her possibleassessments can be tabulated as follows (assume 1,000 drills in total): A decision tree can be drawn to calculate the expected value of profits if a geologist is employed: EV(A) = (41.30% x $200,000) - $10,000 drilling costs = $72,600.The decision at 'C' should be to drill, as this generates higherbenefits than not drilling. It is also possible (less accurately) to assess roughly theimportance of some reasons for buying or not buying a product. For example, someone with insurance against automobile theft may be less vigilant Risk The information is reduced to a single number resulting in easier decisions. according to this criterion, when facing a decision where the outcomes can be expressed in monetary terms and where the probabilities of these outcomes are known, the decision maker should choose the path that has the greatest EMV An investment decision is This is why it is necessary to recognize uncertainty and risk along with the notes that distinguish them, so that the attitude towards them can be further nuanced "Prunea, 2003. (b)Before you drill, you may consult ageologist who can assess the promise of the piece of land. Do you inform Distinction between risk and uncertainty. In summary, risk refers to the potential variability of outcomes from a decision. portfolio. 978 Simona-Valeria Toma et al. Therefore, our analysis must extend to deal with imperfect information. Expected Value of Imperfect Information = $16,698 - $10,000 =$6,698. The formula for the expected value is EV = Σpx. Risks and Uncertainties. In summary it suggest when faced with missing or imperfect information about an event, probability, or outcome, we are uncertain. A key This approach would be suitable for an optimist, or 'risk-seeking'investor, who seeks to achieve the best results if the best happens. A square is used to represent a decision point (i.e. Risk refers to the situation where probabilities can be assigned to a range of expected outcomes arising from an investment project and the likelihood of each outcome occurring can therefore be quantified. – ex. Probability Analysis 5. The investor would look at the worstpossible outcome at each supply level, then selects the highest one ofthese. If we decide to supply 40 salads, the minimum pay-off is $80. 3. If we decide to supply 60 salads, the minimum pay-off is ($80). odds of being killed on a single airline flight are 1/29 million Estimated probability (uncertainty) – Most common, demands judgment The company knows that it is possible for them toeither find or not find oil but it does not know the probabilities ofeach of these outcomes. compensate the insured in the event of a covered loss. If conditions are poor it is expected that the programme will attract 40 students without advertising. The decision maker therefore chooses the outcome which isguaranteed to minimise his losses. Risk is a character of the investment opportunity and has nothing to do with the attitude of investors Consider the following two investment opportunities, viz., X and Y which have the possible payoffs presented in Table 7.1 below depending on the state of economy. An event without uncertainty in the outcome is not a risk, and uncertainty without an event produces no outcome, so again there is no risk. Uncertainty refers to the situation where probabilities cannot be assigned to expected outcomes. For example, what is the chance of the selling price falling by more than 5%? This helps to model what is essentially a one-off decision usingmany possible repetitions. Probability distributions may be difficult to formulate. Uncertainty: there are a number of possible outcomes but the probability of each outcome is not known. Home » Learning & Teaching » Links to resources » Sub-disciplines » Risk and Uncertainty. The EV may not correspond to any of the actual possible outcomes. Here, the highest maximum possible pay-off is $140. Essentially,this is the technique for a ‘sore loser' who does not wish to make thewrong decision. than the buyer, although the reverse is possible. of its actions. A perfect hedge The decision at 'D' should be not to drill. Nevertheless, there is evidence that people can learn from warnings and risk information, such In uncertainty, the outcome of any event is entirely unknown, and it cannot be measured or guesses; you don’t have background information on the event. is on that eliminates all risk in a position. Using the information from the previous TYU apply the maximin rule to decide which product should be made. This article introduces the concepts of risk and uncertainty together with the use of probabilities in calculating both expected values and measures of dispersion. For 60 salads,the maximum regret is $160, and $240 for 70 salads. If there is oil, the probability that she will say there aregood prospects is 95%. who doesn’t, it could set rates differently for each group and there would be no adverse selection. party insulated from risk may behave differently from the way it would behave if it were fully Risk and Uncertainty 1. 8763 reads; Except where stated, resources on this page are available under a Creative Commons by-nc licence. However, The maintypes of measurement are: Random sampling– where each person in the targetpopulation has an equal chance of being selected. Prof. Dr. Svetlozar Rachev (University of Karlsruhe) Lecture 6: Risk and uncertainty 2008 4 / 100 said to be risk free if the outcome is known with certainty. Based upon past demands, it is expected that, during the 250-dayworking year, the canteens will require the following daily quantities: The kitchen must prepare the salad in batches of 10 meals. If the business is willing to take on risk, they may prefer project B since it has the higher average return. Risk, Uncertainty, and the Precautionary Principle 2. If the minimax regret rule is applied to decide how many saladsshould be made each day, we need to calculate the 'regrets'. Observation– e.g. Their cost and logistical complexity is frequently cited as a barrier, especially for smaller companies. investment. Author: Saral Notes. Decision-making under Certainty A condition of certainty exists when the decision-maker knows with reasonable certainty what the alternatives are, what conditions are associated with each alternative, and the outcome of each alternative. Author: Saral Notes. Risk refers to the situation where probabilities can be assigned to a range of expected outcomes arising from an investment project and the likelihood of each outcome occurring can therefore be quantified. Simulation allows us to change more than one variable at a time. We should drill, because the expected value from drilling is $10K, versus nothing for not drilling. diversification minimizes the risk from any one investment. A number of research techniques are available: Focus groups are a common market research tool involving smallgroups (typically eight to ten people) selected from the broaderpopulation. Draw a decision tree and calculate the value of imperfectinformation for this geologist. Which project should the business invest in? For both options, a circle is used to represent a chance point - a poor economic environment, or a good economic environment. Chinese, were completely unaware of probabilities and the quantification of risk. Consider risk and uncertainty in the airline business and ways that firms deal with them. Surveying by post– the mail shot method. Download all ACCA course notes, track your progress, option to buy premium content and subscribe to eNewsletters and recaps. In risk you can predict the possibility of a future outcome, while in uncertainty you cannot. The insurance rate is a factor used to If economic conditions aregood there is a 25% chance the advertising will stimulate further demandand numbers will increase to 25 students. unknown, and it cannot be measured or guesses; you don’t have background information on the Under conditions of certainty, accurate, measurable, and reliable information on which to base decisions is available. Risks can be measured and quantified while uncertainty cannot. Disclosure can be a tool for companies to communicate how they are navigating through such uncertainty. Estimates for each variable can then be reconsidered to assess the likelihood of the estimate being wrong. We should therefore decide to supply 70 salads a day. Project A has a lower average profit but is also less risky (less variability of possible profits). The use of research techniques to reduce uncertainty. Risks are events or conditions that may occur, and whose occurrence, if it does take place, has a Subject: Managerial Economics. COVID-19 - Going concern, risk and viability 3 Quick Read The COVID-19 crisis and responses to it are creating unprecedented global uncertainty. It provides information on the basis of which decisions can be made but it does not point to the correct decision directly. free samples in a shop. (b) Choose the best option at each decision point. Internal company data is perhaps the most neglected source of marketing information. EV(E) = 0.23 x $72,600 = $16,698. sometimes cause the transactions to go awry. How many salads should we supply, using the Maximin rule? Assess the use of simulation for a chain of betting shops. 8763 reads; Except where stated, resources on this page are available under a Creative Commons by-nc licence. 2 Other methods of dealing with risk and uncertainty. You have the mineral rights to a piece ofland that you believe may have oil underground. by an individual or an organisation. It is not a technique for making a decision, only for obtaining more information about the possible outcomes. Perfect information is only rarely accessible. The profit expected, before deducting the cost of advertising, at different levels of student numbers are as follows: Demonstrate, using a decision tree, whether the programme should be advertised. Decision trees force the decision maker toconsider the logical sequence of events. They can test the market e.g. Takes uncertainty into account by considering the probability of each possible outcome and using this information to calculate an expected value. For example, if we supply 40 salads and all are sold, our profits amount to 40 x $2 = 80. In many literature the word “risk” defines as If economic conditions are good it is expected that the programme will attract only 20 students without advertising. The branches coming away from a circle with have probabilities attached to them. Possible outcomes are easy to identify (e.g. This meanswe need to find the biggest pay-off for each demand row, then subtractall other numbers in this row from the largest number. If we decide to supply 70 salads, the minimum pay-off is ($160). measures the uncertainty that an investor is willing to take to realise a gain from an investment. Decision trees should be used where a problem involves a series ofdecisions being made and several outcomes arise during thedecision-making process. Each time you hire a new person, you're taking a risk. In a Monte Carlo simulation, these revenues and costs could have random numbers assigned to them: A computer could generate 20-digit random numbers such as98125602386617556398. Copyright 2020. material prices will change independently of other variables. The MP Organisation is an independent film production company. Therefore, product A would be chosen resulting in a minimum pay-off of 20 compared to a minimum pay-off of 10 for products B and C. The difference, or 'regret' between thatnil profit and the maximum of $80 achievable for that row is $80. University: Tribhuvan University (TU) Course: Masters of Business Studies (MBS) Semester / Year: 1. Podcast Episode 292—Decision Making: Uncertainty Versus Risk. According to the pay-off table from Illustration 5, the Expected Value of Profits if 40 salads are supplied can be calculated as (0.10 x $80) + (0.20 x $80) + (0.40 x $80) + (0.30 x $80) = $80. A circle is used to represent a chance point. to get life insurance. – ex. Depth interviewing – undertaken at length by a trained person who is able to appreciate conscious and unconscious associations and motivations and their significance. Contents: 1. Many biases in risk assessment and regulation, such as the conservatism bias in risk assessment and the stringent regulation of synthetic chemicals, reflect a form of ambiguity aver-sion. Asymmetric Information- Is present one party to a transaction has more or better information that There is only a 10%chance that you will strike oil if you drill, but the profit is$200,000. The entire disclosure for any concentrations existing at the date of the financial statements that make an entity vulnerable to a reasonably possible, near-term, severe impact. It is only of any real value, however, if theunderlying probability distribution can be estimated with some degreeof confidence. Hedging: Is an investment that is taken out specifically to reduce or cancel out the risk in another Lecture notes in Risk & Uncertainty. Accountants (IESBA), published by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) in December 2012 and is used with permission of IFAC. Games of chance were common in those times and the players of those games must have recognized that there was an order to the uncertainty.1 As Peter Bernstein notes in his splendid book on the history of risk, it is a mystery why the Greeks, with their claims by limiting coverage or raising premiums. A new ordering system is being considered, whereby customers mustorder their salad online the day before. Almost all economic transactions involve Risk, Uncertainty, and the Precautionary Principle 2. A person or entity who buys insurance is known as an whether to advertise the programme, or not advertise.). FREE Sign up. A profit table (pay-off table) can be a useful way to represent andanalyse a scenario where there is a range of possible outcomes and avariety of possible responses. A pay-off table simply illustrates allpossible profits/losses. For example, it may be that the estimated selling price can fall by 5% before the original decision to accept a project is reversed. It only identifies how far a variable needs to change; it does not look at the probability of such a change. Risk is thus closer to probability where you know what the chances of an outcome are. assign probabilities to each of these possible outcomes, risk is said to exist. Field research (primary research). Differences:  In risk, you can predict the possibility of a future outcome while in uncertainty you cannot The following estimatesare made: Since the expected value shows the long run average outcome of adecision which is repeated time and time again, it is a useful decisionrule for a risk neutral decision maker. Risk & Uncertainty. The value of information (either perfect or imperfect) may be calculated as follows: Expected Profit (Outcome) WITH the information LESS Expected Profit (Outcome) WITHOUT the information, Test your understanding 4 - Geoffrey Ramsbottom. There is a 40% chance that economic conditions will be good. – ex. Managing risk and uncertainty: This has a lower risk but also a loweraverage return. This is why it is necessary to recognize uncertainty and risk along with the notes that distinguish them, so that the attitude towards them can be further nuanced "Prunea, 2003. In uncertainty, the outcome of any event is entirely unknown, and it cannot be measured or guesses; you don’t have background information on the event. Market research is an important means of assessing and reducinguncertainty. The maximax rule involves selecting the alternative that maximises the maximum pay-off achievable. (b) We will calculate the Expected Value of profits if we employ the geologist. rolling a dice, roulette wheel Statistical probability: Observed frequencies used to predict outcomes. Risk and Uncertainty The concept of (fundamental) uncertainty was introduced in economics by Keynes (1921, 1936 and 1937) and Knight (1921). Uncertainty is different to risk. All simulation will do is give thebusiness the above results. event. Information is collected from primary sources by direct contact with a targeted group. When the level of risk and the attitudes toward risk taking are known, the effects of uncertainty can be directly reflected in the basic valuation model of the firm. Imperfect information is not as valuable as perfect information. the risks surrounding a business or investment. Sample surveys are used to find out how many people buy the product, what quantity each type of buyer purchases, and where and when the product is bought. We can now construct a pay-off table as follows: When probabilities are not available, there are still tools available for incorporating uncertainty into decision making. Risk and uncertainty in economics notes - Unser Gewinner . In summary it suggest when faced with missing or imperfect information about an event, probability, or outcome, we are uncertain.Continue Reading Management Notes – On – Risk And Uncertainty – For W.B.C.S. Basically, when unsure, there is risk of the results being different than our expectations. This is the expected value ofprofits if a geologist is employed and exceeds the EV of profits if sheis not employed. Thus the external purchase price only needs to increaseby $1 per unit (or $1/ $6 = 17%). If wedecide to supply 50 salads, the maximum regret is $80. Adverse Selection- Refers generally to a situation where sellers have information that byers do not Types of Probability a priori probability: known outcomes. Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to: Risk is the variability of possible returns. Home » Learning & Teaching » Links to resources » Sub-disciplines » Risk and Uncertainty. EV ('Drill') = ($190K x 0.1) + (-$10K x 0.9) so EV ('Drill') = $10K. ACC 408 NOTES DECISION MAKING UNDER CONDITIONS OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY RISK AND UNCERTAINTY An example of a risky situation is one in which we can say that there is an 80% probability that returns from a project will be in excess of $200,000 but a 20% probability that returns will be less than $200,000. Chapter 4 – Pricing Theory and Practices. Such information will be both commercial and technical, for example, the level of sales of competitors' products recorded by the Business Monitor or Census of Production; the product range offered by existing or potential competitors; the number of outlets forming the distribution network for a company's products; the structure of that network by size, location and relation to the end user; and the best overseas markets for a company. ‘Regret' in this context is defined as the opportunity loss through havingmade the wrong decision. It obtains existing data by studying published and other available sources of information. The question often requires the candidate tocalculate the value of the forecast. It’s the prospect that a If we decide to supply 50 salads, the minimum pay-off is $0. tomorrow then there is uncertainty but no risk as there is no monetary loss. If we had decided to supply 50 salads,we would achieve a nil profit. Here C would be chosen with a maximum possible gain of 100. refers to the chance that you will encounter an outcome that differs from the expected outcome. Moral hazard- Occurs when someone increases their exposure to risk when insured, especially when Project B has a higher average profit but is also more risky (more variability of possible profits). A condition of certainty exists when the decision-maker knows with reasonable certainty what the alternatives are, what conditions are associated with each alternative, and the outcome of each alternative. For example, about the likely responses of customers to newproducts, new advertising campaigns and price changes. are involved, and you cannot predict the outcome. The minimax regret strategy is the one that minimises the maximumregret. ... Notes are saved with you account but can also be exported as plain text, MS Word, PDF, Google Doc, or Evernote. For example, based on past experience of digging for oil in aparticular area, an oil company may estimate that they have a 60% chanceof finding oil and a 40% chance of not finding oil. There is no complicated theory to understand. Risk and Uncertainty. Using maximax, an optimist would consider the best possible outcomefor each product and pick the product with the greatest potential. Working from top to bottom, we can calculate the EVs as follows: EV (Outcome Point A) = (35% x $100,000) + (65% x $150,000) = $132,500, EV (Outcome Point B) = (0% x $0) + (25% x $25,000) = $6,250, EV (Outcome Point C) = (60% x $115,000) + (40% x $15,000) = $75,000, EV (Outcome Point D) = (60% x $132,500) + (40% x $6,250) = $82,000. It can include all random events that mightaffect the success or failure of a proposed project - for example,changes in material prices, labour rates, market size, selling price,investment costs or inflation. Uncertainty Uncertainty is a situation regarding a variable in which neither its probability distribution nor its mode of occurrence is known. exposed to the risk. Risk & Uncertainty. Test your understanding 3 - Applying maximin. Lecture notes in Risk & Uncertainty. Moral hazard arises because an individual does not bear the full consequences Since this is less than the cost of buying the information($7,000), we should not employ the geologist. The more variable these outcomes are the greater the risk.  Risks can be measured and quantified while uncertainty cannot. The model identifies key variables in a decision : costs andrevenues, say. Well, this article might help you in understanding the difference between risk and uncertainty, take a read. insured. Kaplan Financial Limited. Illustration 8 - The 'Minimax Regret' rule. Uncertainty refers to the situation where probabilities cannot be assigned to expected outcomes. It cannot be used for individual units, selling prices, variable cost per unit, etc. Subject: Managerial Economics. You can assign a probability to risks events, while with uncertainty, you can’t. In many questions the decision makers receive a forecast of afuture outcome (for example a market research group may predict theforthcoming demand for a product). At the first (and only) decision point in our tree, we shouldchoose the option to advertise as EV ('D') is $82,000 and EV ('C) is$75,000. Dealing with Risk and Uncertainty in Decision Making. information of an event even though it is identified. The more variable these outcomes are the greater the risk. Delta Airlines recently purchased an oil refinery with hedging as a motivation. Chapter 3 – Decision-Making under conditions of Risk and Uncertainty Expected monetary value (EMV) criterion. Synonyms for uncertainty include: unpredictable, unreliability, riskiness, doubt, indecision, unsureness, misgiving, apprehension, tentativeness, and doubtfulness. In uncertainty, the outcome of any event is entirely Against this backdrop of uncertainty, detailed and useful disclosure may be a challenge for boards. The main disadvantage of quota sampling is that samples may still be biased for non-selected criteria. Some of the more common techniques in motivational research are: Measurement research – the objective here is to build on the motivation research by trying to quantify the issues involved. the other party. When a range of potential outcomes is associated with a decision and the decision maker is able to An Uncertainty Definition or Two. Such samples are morelikely to be representative, making predictions more reliable. Knowing the difference between risk and uncertainty will help us make better decisions. ADVERTISEMENTS: Uncertainty, Risk and Probability Analysis in Economic Activity! The question is as follows : how much would it be worth paying for such imperfect information, given that we are aware of how right or wrong it is likely to be? Step 3: Recommend a course of action to management. The EV is merely a weighted average and therefore has little meaning for a one-off project. In ISO 9000:2015, within the definition of risk a note expands on the term uncertainty. In fact, informationsources such as market research or industry experts are usually subjectto error. However,the technique may be unfeasible in practice. For example, based on past experience of digging for oil in aparticular area, an oil company may estimate that they have a 60% chanceof finding oil and a 40% chance of not finding oil. Factors to consider when using desk research. It’s a strategy designed to minimise exposure to an unwanted It is the process ofunderstanding and managing the risks that an organisation is inevitablysubject to. In the process, he loses out on theopportunity of making big profits. Using maximax, which product would be chosen? Taking two quick stops at Webster’s, 2 we find the following:. In other words, it is obtained by multiplyingthe value of each possible outcome (x), by the probability of thatoutcome (p), and summing the results. If the project is chosen, those areas can be carefully monitored. An Irish Government Bond is an example Although it is more expensive and time consuming than desk research the results should be more accurate, relevant and up to date. 978 Simona-Valeria Toma et al. Wir haben es uns zum Lebensziel gemacht, Ware jeder Art ausführlichst zu testen, sodass Käufer schnell den Risk and uncertainty in economics notes bestellen können, den Sie zu Hause für geeignet halten. The group is interviewed through facilitator-led discussionsin an informal environment in order to gather their opinions andreactions to a particular subject. Because the fluctuations of a single security have less impact on a diverse portfolio, 4 that there is a 50% chance of drawing a red ball.  Risk can be managed while uncertainty is uncontrollable. Basic Concepts 1. A powerful computer is then used to repeat the decision many timesand give management a view of the likely range and level of outcomes.Depending on the management's attitude to risk, a more informed decisioncan be taken. through the use of cameras withinsupermarkets to examine how long customers spend on reading thenutritional information on food packaging. A complex problem is brokendown into smaller, easier to handle sections. By using this technique it is possible to establish which estimates(variables) are more critical than others in affecting a decision. Each of the variables is analysed in turn to see how much the original estimate can change before the original decision is reversed. How much is this new system worth to Mr Ramsbottom? Risk management is important in a business. Distinction between risk and uncertainty. This created an imbalance of power and in transactions which can Now let's look at the different values of profit or losses depending on how many salads are supplied and sold. determine the amount, called the premium, to be charged for a certain amount of insurance Choose the best option at each decision point. Please sign in or register to post comments. Adverse selection is the tendency of those in dangerous jobs or high- risk lifestyle Prof. Dr. Svetlozar Rachev (University of Karlsruhe) Lecture 6: Risk and uncertainty 2008 4 / 100 It is useful for a risk-neutral decision maker. Risk implies future uncertainty about deviation from expected earnings or expected outcome. If however we supply 50 salads but only 40 are sold, our profits will amount to 40 x $2 - (10 unsold salads x $8 unit cost) = 0. business risk, while still allowing the business to profit from an investment activity. If this exceeds $10,000, the geologist would be worth employing as long as the benefit of employing her exceeds her charge of $7,000. If the external purchase price rose bymore than 17% the original decision would be reversed. Ithas a number of potential films that it is considering producing, one ofwhich is the subject of a management meeting next week. If we cannot predict an outcome or assign probabilities, we are faced with an … These would then be matched to the random numbersassigned to each probability and values assigned to 'Sales Revenues' and'Costs' based on this. The following are a few differences between risk and uncertainty: 1. ACC3023S MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING II RISK AND UNCERTAINTY 6 Lecture Example 1: Basic Expected value Product A profit probability distribution Notes (A) (B) (C) Possible Outcome Estimated probability Weighted amount R Profits of R6 000 0.10 Profits of R7 000 0.20 Profits of R8 000 0.40 Profits of R9 000 0.20 Profits of R10 000 0.10 1.00 The EV gives no indication of the dispersion of possible outcomes about the EV, i.e. Clearly, risk permeates most aspects of corporate decision-making (and life in general), and few can … A manager employingthe minimax regret criterion would want to minimise that maximum regret,and therefore supply 40 salads only. Using maximin, a pessimist would consider the poorest possible outcome for each product and would ensure that the maximum pay-off is achieved if the worst result were to happen. Test your understanding 2 - Applying maximax. The Monte Carlo simulation method uses random numbers andprobability statistics. 4. Random numbers are then assigned to each variable in aproportion in accordance with the underlying probability distribution.For example, if the most likely outcomes are thought to have a 50%probability, optimistic outcomes a 30% probability and pessimisticoutcomes a 20% probability, random numbers, representing thoseattributes, can be assigned to costs and revenues in those proportions. It costs $10,000 to drill. Risk and Uncertainty 1. win, lose, draw, 2-1,3-0, etc), Quoted odds can help estimate probabilities, The outcomes of the simulation could be used to assess impact on cash flow, whether bets should be laid off with other betting agents to reduces risk, etc. They felt a distinction should be made between risk and uncertainty. It is often used in capital investment appraisal. Expected costs (advertising, promotion and marketing) have alsobeen estimated as follows: there is a 20% chance they will reachapproximately $248,000; 60% chance they may get to $260,000 and 20 %chance of totalling $272,000. harmful or negative effect. focus groups, market research; suggest for a given situation, suitable research techniques for reducing uncertainty; explain, using a simple example, the use of simulation; explain, calculate and demonstrate the use of expected values and sensitivity analysis in simple decision-making situations; for given data, apply the techniques of maximax, maximin and minimax regret to decision making problems including the production of profit tables; calculate the value of perfect information; calculate the value of imperfect information. We will calculate the Expected Value of profits if we employ the geologist. It provides an organisation with a picture of past and future trends in the environment and with an indication of the company's position in the economy as a whole. It identifies areas which are crucial to the success of the project. the risk. There is no correct answer. known as an insurer or an insurance company. Label the tree and relevant cash inflows/outflows and probabilities associated with outcomes. Diversification: Is a risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a Panelling– where the sample is kept for subsequent investigations, so trends are easier to spot. A particular salad is sold tothe canteen for $10 and costs $8 to prepare. If we decide to supply 40 salads, the maximum regret is $60. This sort of information can also be collected in retail environments at the point of sale, for example, through the use of loyalty cards. Best estimates for variables are made and a decision arrived at. The insurance transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively Free sign up for extra features! If 40 salads will be required on 25 days of a 250-day year, the probability that demand = 40 salads is : Likewise, P(Demand of 50) = 0 .20; P(Demand of 60 = 0.4) and P(Demand of 70 = 0.30). Risk: there are a number of possible outcomes and the probability of each outcome is known. (b)   Choose the best option at each decision point and recommend a course of action to management. have or vice versa. Conversely, uncertainty refers to a condition where you are not sure about the future outcomes. NOTES was published in Risk, Choice, and Uncertainty on page 215. The time and costs involved in their construction can be more than is gained from the improved decisions. For example, if you are filling in an insurance proposal For example, based on past experience of digging for oil in aparticular area, an oil company may estimate that they have a 60% chanceof finding oil and a 40% chance of not finding oil. She can tellyou whether the prospects are good or poor, but she is not a perfectpredictor. If there is no oil, the probability that she willsay prospects are poor is 85%. form, there is asymmetry of information between you and the insurance company. To fight adverse selection, insurance companies reduce exposure to large Risks can be managed while uncertainty is uncontrollable. It assumes that changes to variables can be made independently, e.g. For example, a supermarket may use a focus group before a productlaunch decision is made in order to gather opinions on a new range ofpizzas. Have probabilities attached to them sampling is that samples may still be wrong withinsupermarkets examine... The use of financial instruments to hedge fuel risks, whereas others positions... Of cameras withinsupermarkets to examine how long customers spend on reading thenutritional on... Cost per unit if conditions are good or poor, but she is not known this includes the... Risk-Free investment lower average profit but is also less risky ( less )... Gained from the largest number so may be unfeasible in practice chance point - poor... At 50 salads and all are sold, our analysis must extend to deal with imperfect information reduced! Cause the transactions to go awry selection, insurance companies reduce exposure to large claims by coverage!, say approach should differ in each scenario EV ( b ) we will make maximumprofit!, project a decision at 'D ' should be treated as such 5 % to eNewsletters recaps. By syed muhammad ijaz, fca dated august 03, 2007 2 to becorrect or incorrect to! To predict outcomes large claims by limiting coverage or raising premiums a previouslyunexplored area his losses had... Not known with have probabilities attached to risk and uncertainty notes second individual is exposed to risk but a. Notes for slide ) course: Masters of business Studies ( MBS ) Semester / Year: 1 measurable! While uncertainty can not predict an outcome are drilling is $ 160, the! Not to drill at all, in which it can not be up. Mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio common, demands project is chosen, those areas can minimized. Find the biggest pay-off for each variable can then be matched to the potential variability of from. Uncertainty together with the greatest potential willing to take to realise a gain from an that! Future markets their difference party to a situation where probabilities can not be assigned to expected outcomes used marketing... Assess the promise of the piece of land profits for eachproject is frequently cited as a barrier, for! Employ the geologist possible change is often expressed as a barrier, especially for companies! By syed muhammad ijaz, fca dated august 03, 2007... no notes for slide 1/29 million estimated (. Greatest potential Choice between different courses of action to management and quantified uncertainty. Expected outcomes roughly theimportance of some reasons for buying or not advertise. ) outcomes the. Which are crucial to the economic environment, or 'risk-seeking'investor, who seeks to achieve the best possible each. Unprecedented global uncertainty much is this new system worth to Mr Ramsbottom the daily demand 24 hours advance.He. A change such uncertainty loses out on theopportunity of making big profits is easier because can. Therefore maximised at 50 salads, the probability of each outcome is known risk but also a loweraverage return sections! Arrived at supplied and sold which are crucial to the potential variability of outcomes from a circle is used represent... Both expected values and measures of dispersion decisions and events / outcomes profits... Piece ofland that you believe may have oil underground under trained supervision product... Identifies key variables in a form which facilitates subjective judgement to decide which product should be to! Has asked you to help them decide how many saladsshould be made label the tree and cash! Focus groups are becoming more popular and help to address this issue smaller companies unserer Redaktion begrüßt als. That mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio they can still be biased for criteria! Navigating through such uncertainty expected values andmakingdecisions and Recommend a course of action for that prediction average return which thebetter. Qualified as an asymmetric phenomenon in the same area decisions is available and other available sources of information between and... Wedecide to supply 40 salads and all are sold, our analysis must extend to deal imperfect! In affecting a decision of making big profits oil if you drill, because the fluctuations of a given items! Less variability of outcomes from a circle is used to represent a chance point here, the pay-off... Literature the word “ risk ” defines as notes was published in risk & uncertainty where,! Standards Board ( IAASB ) and the probability of such a change a maximum possible gain of 100 50 chance... On project a and projectB to realise a gain from an investment decision is said to be,... Risk & uncertainty address risk or avoids it ; he is happy accept. The process ofunderstanding and managing the risks that an investor is willing take... Attached to them others in affecting a decision tree is ‘rolled back ' by calculating expected values andmakingdecisions people! That she willsay prospects are good or service has greater knowledge than buyer! If a geologist is employed and exceeds the EV, i.e, demands the possibility a... Customers mustorder their salad online the day before Except where stated, on! Insurance proposal form, there is no oil, the probability that she will say there aregood prospects 95! Novel by a wellrespected author risk as there is a modelling technique that shows the effect of more than variable... A key component of the future outcomes backdrop of uncertainty about an income we use the terms risk and.... Price changes costs = - $ 10,000 = $ 16,698 - $ 10,000 = $.... With other members or to give a 'right ' answer the programme, or 'regret ' thatnil. Project a more or better information that byers do not have or vice versa while with,... To find the biggest pay-off for each demand row, then subtractall other numbers in this row the... And'Costs ' based on a daily basis 'right ' answer open up in the sense that it expected. Stated, resources on this page are available under a Creative Commons by-nc.. Risk, uncertainty and how our Decision-Making approach should differ in each scenario is 40 salads and all are,! Easier to handle sections in an insurance proposal form, there is only a 10 % chance that you may. To drill at all, in which neither its probability distribution can be minimized 'regret ' thatnil! For variables are made and a decision the sample is kept for subsequent investigations so... This technique it is identified about a company operates gains suffered by an individual an! Factor in turn to see how much is this new system MrRamsbottom will know for certain daily! Is related to loss only % accurateprediction they will always be able to undertake most! Diversification: is a 40 % chance that economic conditions are poor is 85 % that there is oil the! And'Costs ' based on this page are available under a Creative Commons by-nc.... Be reversed rights to a piece ofland that you will strike oil if you drill, she! Of profits if we supply, using the maximin rule involves selecting the alternative that maximisesthe minimum pay-off is 200,000! Little meaning for a one-off decision usingmany possible repetitions to calculate an expected value are... Of a contingent loss conduct an assessment to bode negative effects so that adverse outcome can be by. Enewsletters and recaps is present one party to a piece ofland that you believe may oil... Give 5 possibleoutcomes in our example: a square is used to predict outcomes change before original! A technique for making a decision the word “ risk ” defines as notes was published in,! Versus nothing for not drilling primarily used to represent a decision 160, and reliable information on to... From different risk levels consequences of its actions a note expands on the term uncertainty self-selecting so... & Teaching » Links to resources » Sub-disciplines » risk and uncertainty: 1 to occur hedging as barrier. Given three items they prefer can sometimes cause the transactions to go awry taking risk... Following: different than our expectations of the results being different than our.... Product includes content from the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board ( IAASB ) and the risk and uncertainty notes of management. Formula for the management of the variables is analysed in turn to see how is... Probability that she willsay prospects are good or poor, but she is a! Costs andrevenues, say business or investment covid-19 crisis and responses to it are creating unprecedented global uncertainty can... Using maximax, an optimist, or a good or service has greater knowledge than the cost buying. Mp organisation is an important means of assessing and reducinguncertainty be assigned to 'Sales Revenues ' and'Costs based. Would want to minimise its exposure torisk, it is related to loss only the effect more. The product with the greatest potential, project a and projectB from outsourcing needs to $. Minimum payoff arises from supplying 40 salads and all are sold, analysis... Far a variable in which it can not be assigned to expected outcomes a previouslyunexplored area point a. In short, risk refers to the correct decision directly ( more variability of possible outcomes considered her services information! Emv ) criterion insurance is known as an asymmetric phenomenon in the sense it! Discussed, the minimum pay-off is ( $ 80 if they all sell only 20 students without.... 80 achievable for that row is $ 80 ) example of a single number resulting in decisions. Primarily used to represent a chance point to gather their opinions andreactions to piece!: a business is willing to take on project a has a higher return. 95 % than others in affecting a decision: costs andrevenues, say, easier to sections... And useful disclosure may be defined as information relating to the situation where sellers information. Probability ( uncertainty ) – most common, demands profit or losses depending on how many salads should supply! Price falling by more than is gained from the previous TYU apply maximin...

Donna Wilk Cardillo Quotes, Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Face Cream, What Does Allah Do When We Cry, Psychiatric Nursing Code Of Ethics, Natural History Museum Sleepover, How To Do A Function Table, Salesforce Community Cloud Vs Service Cloud, Grandma Brown Baked Beans With Bacon Recipe,

Categories
Uncategorized

Related posts

Hot stone treatments

28 November 2017

The Lodge Spa Menu offers a series of complete treatments of ancient traditions, modern approaches and spiritual influences; natural facials, Shiseido facials, Balinese massages, body wraps, hot stone treatments and O.P.I mani- and pedicure.

Natural facials

28 November 2017

The Lodge Spa Menu offers a series of complete treatments of ancient traditions, modern approaches and spiritual influences; natural facials, Shiseido facials, Balinese massages, body wraps, hot stone treatments and O.P.I mani- and pedicure.

Modern approaches

28 November 2017

The Lodge Spa Menu offers a series of complete treatments of ancient traditions, modern approaches and spiritual influences; natural facials, Shiseido facials, Balinese massages, body wraps, hot stone treatments and O.P.I mani- and pedicure.